Internet Gambling: Online Togel Online To Be Legalize?

 

 

Former Senator, Alfonse D’Amato, chairman of the Poker Players’ Alliance stated that he believes the online poker legalization in the United States will hapern within the next 18 months. D’ Amato stated this last Thursday in the Global Gaming Expo that took place at Las Vegas.

 

The pending sanctions by the World Trade Organization that are due to US policy towards Internet Gambling could be the key to make online gambling legal. It was believed that non-gaming corporations will pressure the Congress to make changes because they will affected by the sanctions.

 

They also believe that underage gambling can be prevented and players can be protected online. They said that because of the ban in the U.S. for reputable payment processers players may be using payment options that are not as safe.

 

Loveman talked about Harrah’s want to research possibly expanding the World Series of Poker to an online poker market which would have to be done overseas. Loveman stated along with Lanni that they do not want to explore places where the laws are unclear and business would only be done where it is clearly legal.

 

Lanni and Loveman also stated that they would want internet gambling to be regulated by a state level instead of a federal level. It was stated that added to the burden of Congress would make no sense.

 

We will see in the upcoming year what changes will be made whether for the betterment of online Togel Online gambling in the U.S. or for the negative. Hopefully the panelists are right and it will not be long before online gambling in the U.S. will be legalized.

 

Speakers present during the session included J.Terrence Lanni, chairman and CEO of MGM MIRAGE, Gary Loveman, Chairman,CEO and president of Harrah’s Entertainment,Inc; Ander Wilsenach, CEO of the Alderney Gambling Control Commission and of course D’Amato. They all were in agreement that online poker would most likely be legalized before other online casino-style games.

 

Antigua And Barbuda Prime Minister Hopes To Resolve Dispute With US Over Internet Gambling

 

Antigua …

Free Togel Online casino games on your CD

 

 

WagerWorks, which is known as the London-based online department of America’s International Game Technology has declared a new game, called Vegas Blackjack With 20+ Bonus.

 

‘This game was produced to be a success with players’ – claims the top iGaming software provider. Such confidence proves its value, since some new features previously unavailable were added to the game of Vegas Blackjack With 20 + Bonus. This game tends to make a player feel as close as possible to the real game in online casino or a land one.

 

The point is that in some other Togel Online games a player has no offer of insurance in case the dealer has a hidden 21 and has to keep playing this ‘blind’ way. Vegas Blackjack With 20+ Bonus has taken in account this drawback and decided on the strong rule where the dealer is to check for blackjack at once, which prevents the players from the risk of wasting their money.

 

The players are currently allowed either to double down or hit on any two cards with dual aces included. It’s possible for them to act after splits, at the moment the dealer holds a soft 17.  As for another positive note, Vegas Blackjack With 20+ Bonus makes it available for participants to bet on the biggest two-card hand.

 

Participant Online Casino Bellini won € 149,908 on automatic Queen of Pyramids.

 

Jens F. was shocked when won € 149,900 in online casino Bellini. This victory even more significant given the fact that a factory worker from Finland has put the entire rate of € 2.25 in automatic Queen of Pyramids, and received the grand prize.

 

Jens first heard about the online casino Bellini, when he went online and saw that online casinos comprised of the five best online casino Sweden. In a recent interview Jens said that he would prefer to play online games, because «I can do something else while playing», adding: «I am prepared spaghetti when I won.» Jens is planning to go on vacation, stuck with a win.

 

Egyptian stunning …

Overstock.com Now Accepts Ether Payments with Crypto Gambling 

 

 

Announced on August 8, 2017, Overstock.com Inc. has integrated with instant asset exchange ShapeShift, allowing customers to select Ether as a payment method when shopping from a variety of nearly 4 million assorted products.

 

In addition to Ether, Overstock said it will also support payments from other major cryptocurrencies, including bitcoin, bitcoin cash, Litecoin, Dash, and Monero. Adopting these currencies, which have proven to be popular trading vehicles on crypto-exchanges, is another bold move by the company that boasts being the first major retailer to accept bitcoin. In addition, Overstock.com has a history of innovating with blockchain technology and was the first publicly traded organisation to distribute 126,000 shares of stock through a blockchain-based internet transaction, as reported by ETHNews.

 

Patrick M. Byrne, CEO and founder of Overstock, expressed the company’s commitment to giving consumers a choice. “Overstock is pro-freedom, including the freedom of individuals to communicate information about value and scarcity without relying on a medium created through the fiat of unaccountable government mandarins. For that reason, we have been an early proponent and adopter of cryptocurrencies.”

 

Shoppers who visit the site will be able to browse and pick their wares. When checking out, the payment option for cryptocurrencies appears adjacent to the credit/debit card option. Overstock uses ShapeShift to convert all tendered payments to bitcoin. Refunds are also processed in bitcoin, but a shopper can use ShapeShift to convert their refunds to any desired cryptocurrency.

 

ETHNews asked a spokesperson from Overstock to clarify the refund process:

 

“For returns, we will process like any other order, using USD for the base amount of the refund and then convert that to bitcoin, based on the exchange rates at the time of the refund. It’s the same process we use for purchases – the USD cost of a product is converted to bitcoin using the exchange rate at the time of purchase – just in reverse. So while the bitcoin amount may differ from purchase to return, it will represent the accurate USD value at the time of each transaction.”

 

It has been …

Cara Menang Judi Bola Bandarqq Over Under

 

 

Cara Menang Judi Bola Over Under | Bermain taruhan atau judi memang begitu seru dan menyenangkan. Tapi tentu saja akan jadi jauh lebih menyenangkan bila ketika bermain taruhan atau judi bisa langsung meraih kemenangan, bukan? Sayangnya, meraih kemenangan dari judi atau taruhan tak semudah membalik telapak tangan. Namun jangan khawatir, karena kemenangan judi atau taruhan akan mudah bila sudah mengetahui tips dan trik bermain atau trik memasang taruhan.

 

Cara Menang Judi Bola Over Under

 

Diantara sekian banyak jenis judi yang tengah populer saat ini, taruhan judi bola menjadi salah satu yang masih dan akan terus menjadi populer. Tak hanya karena kans kemenangan untuk jenis judi atau taruhan ini sangat besar, namun juga karena banyaknya jenis taruhan dan judi dari judi bola.

 

Misalnya saja jenis taruhan over under yang saat ini tengah digemari oleh banyak pemain judi, terutama di Indonesia. Nah untuk And ayang masih belum begitu jelas mengenai judi atau taruhan over under, taruhan ini memiliki peraturan kemenangan yang cukup unik. Yang sebenarnya memberi lebih banyak peluang bagi pemain untuk menang : tentu saja bila tahu bagaimaan tips dan triknya.

 

Ada beberapa jenis taruhan atau judi Bandarqq bola over under yang tergantung dari pasaran bola. Mulai dari over under pasaran bola 1.3/4 hingga over under 2.3/4. Kemenangan pada taruhan over under ditentukan dari banyaknya gol yang dibuat untuk tim yang dipilih. Misalnya pada over under pasaran bola 1.3/4, pemain akan menang over bila tim sepak bola mencetak 3 gol, akan menang setengah bila mencetak 2 gol, dan akan kembali menang under bila tim sepak bola menang 1 gol.

 

Cara Menang Judi Bola Over Under

 

Selain itu? tentu saja kalah. Masing-masing pasaran bola akan memiliki ketentuan gol yang berbeda-beda untuk kemenangannya. Lalu, bagaimana cara bermain agar terus dapat menang di taruhan over under? Dibawah ini kami memiliki caranya.

 

Tips pertama judi bola over under adalah dengan meletakkan taruhan hanya pada babak kedua. Pasalnya, ketika babak kedua sudah berjalan maka seharusnya alur permainan jauh lebih mudah ditebak. Meletakkan taruhan over under sejak babak pertama seakan-akan membeli kucing dalam karung, dimana Anda pun tak …

Ready For NetEnt’s Mega Fortune™ Pooled Joka Casino?

 

 

Everyone would like to hold a world record, especially if they can become millionaires in the process. To make this dream a reality for one of our players, NetEnt and BetChain have partnered up to bring you one of the most incredible opportunities to score both in one fell swoop! The Mega Fortune™ Pooled Jackpot is here so you can participate and take a shot at both fame and fortune.

 

Mega Fortune Offers

 

NetEnt Holds a Pooled Jackpot Guinness World Record!

The last time NetEnt came out with one of these incredible Pooled Jackpots, the winner established a Guinness World Record with a larger-than-life win. In fact, this was the second time that a NetEnt Pooled Jackpot established a Guinness World Record. Here are the incredible stats that will make you want to spin for fortune and glory:

 

NetEnt Pooled Jackpot Mega Fortune™ holds the world record for the largest payout on an online slot machine. The prize: €17.86 million!

In 2015, NetEnt also established the Guinness World Record for a mobile game payout with a €8.6 million jackpot!

BetChain brings you a unique chance to break the record!

Since jackpots can always be larger and more exhilarating, here at BetChain we decided to partner up with NetEnt this time around to give our players the chance to establish the next world record. Now is your time to shine and let the entire world know that the next Pooled Jackpot record maker is a BetChain player!

 

Mega Fortune

 

Get your best game attitude on. Come out and play on this Mega Fortune™ Pooled Jackpot. This can end up being the jackpot of a lifetime, or maybe even the jackpot of a whole generation. It could even be the jackpot of the century, and we know you want your name on it. So, go ahead and take the chance. You are just a single spin away from becoming the first BetChain player ever to hit a NetEnt Mega Fortune™ Pooled Jackpot! Also, read this blog and find out every detail on Progressive Jackpots. Who …

SBOBET SPORTSBOOK GAME

 

 

SBOBET mеruраkаn реmеnаng реnghаrgааn Aѕіаn Oреrаtоr оf thе Yеаr untuk tаhun 2009 dаn 2010 ѕесаrа bеrturut-turut, dеngаn іјіn ореrаѕі dі Aѕіа Pаѕіfіk dаn Erора dаrі Fіrѕt Cаgауаn Lеіѕurе & Rеѕоrt Cоrроrаtіоn dі Fіlіріnа dаn Iѕlе оf Mаn. Bеrрuѕаt dі Fіlіріnа, SBOBET mеruраkаn ѕаlаh ѕаtu реnуеdіа Sроrtѕbооk уаng mеnаwаrkаn bеrаnеkа rаgаm реrmаіnаn tаruhаn dаrі bеrbаgаі bіdаng оlаhrаgа уаng mеnсаkuр ѕераkbоlа, bаѕkеt, tеnіѕ, Fоrmulа 1, dаn lаіn-lаіn. SBOBеt јugа mеruраkаn ѕроnѕоr utаmа untuk klub ѕераkbоlа lіgа Inggrіѕ Wеѕt Hаm Unіtеd dаn Cаrdіff Cіtу. SBOBET јugа ѕаngаt tеrkеnаl kаrеnа реnggunааnnуа уаng mudаh. Dеngаn реngаlаmаn рuluhаn tаhun dаlаm bіdаng tаruhаn оlаhrаgа, SBOBET mеnјаmіn kеаmаnаn dаn kеnуаmаnаn bеrmаіn. SBOBET јugа mеmbеrіkаn burѕа раѕаr tаruhаn уаng ѕаngаt kоmреtіtіf dеngаn реnуеdіа Sроrtѕbооk utаmа dunіа уаng lаіn. Indоbоlа mеruраkаn ѕаlаh ѕаtu SUPER MASTER AGEN untuk SBOBET, dаn tеlаh mеnјаdі аgеn bоlа SBOBET tеrреrсауа ѕеlаmа bеrtаhun-tаhun. Indоbоlа mеmрunуаі kоmіtmеn untuk mеmbеrіkаn kерuаѕаn bаgі раrа mеmbеr-nуа dеngаn mеmbеrіkаn lауаnаn уаng сераt ѕеrtа аmаn. Dеngаn mеmіlіh SBOBET ѕеbаgаі ріlіhаn реrmаіnаn, mеmbеr аgеn bоlа Indоbоlа аkаn mеmреrоlеh аkѕеѕ untuk Sроrtѕbооk dаn Gаmеѕ untuk mеngаkѕеѕ раѕаr tаruhаn. (Tеrріѕаh dеngаn ріlіhаn SBOBET Cаѕіnо).

 

IBCBET Cаѕіnо, уаng dulu lеbіh dіkеnаl dеngаn nаmа 338A, mеruраkаn vеndоr реrmаіnаn kаѕіnо tеrnаmа уаng mеnуеdіаkаn bаnуаk ріlіhаn gаmе kаѕіnо оnlіnе. Dеngаn mеnggunаkаn ѕіѕtеm Multі Plауеr Lіvе Dеаlеr уаng dіkеlоlа bеrѕаmа vеndоr оnlіnе  qiu qiu online  gаmіng dі Auѕtrаlіа mеnјаdіkаn SBOBеt Cаѕіnо ѕеbаgаі ѕаlаh ѕаtu ріlіhаn utаmа раrа ресіntа cаѕіnо оnlіnе. IBCBET Cаѕіnо mеnуеdіаkаn bеrbаgаі vаrіаѕі реrmаіnаn, ѕереrtі: Pоkеr, Bассаrаt, Rоulеttе, Kеnо, dаn mаѕіh bаnуаk lаgі. Andа аkаn dіbuаt bеtаh dеngаn kоmbіnаѕі реrmаіnаn tаk tеrbаtаѕ. Indоbоlа mеruраkаn SUPER MASTER AGEN untuk SBOBET Cаѕіnо, bеrѕаmааn dеngаn SUPER MASTER AGEN untuk SBOBET Sроrtѕbооk, уаng tеntunуа аkаn bеruѕаhа уаng tеrbаіk untuk mеmbеrіkаn kерuаѕаn раdа раrа mеmbеr ѕеtіа dеngаn lауаnаn dаn рrоѕеѕ dероѕіt ѕеrtа wіthdrаw уаng сераt.

 

ASIATANGKAS adalah penyedia permainan Bola Tangkas Online (Mickey Mouse) yang pola permainannya sama dengan permainan Bola Tangkas lainnya yang mengikuti pola tabel rumus Bola Tangkas, hanya saja ASIATANGKAS memiliki kelebihan dapat dimainkan melalui perangkat android, melalui web dan sistem download. ASIATANGKAS telah menjadi website penyedia permainan Bola Tangkas Online yang sudah terpercaya dan memiliki …

Lebih Untung Bermain Casino di Agen 338A Online

 

 

Judi Bola Casino yang akan mengulas sebuah berita tentang lebih untung bermain casino di agen 338A online. Ketika anda sedang melakukan sebuah permainan judi dengan menggunakan media internet, hal yang harus anda lakukan adalah dengan berusaha mendapatkan tempat bermain judi yang aman nyaman serta bisa menguntungkan kita. Tempat yang biasanya menguntungkan anda dalam permainan judi anda adalah dengan bergabung di sebuah agen judi online tepercaya. karena berbagai keuntungan yang bisa di dapatkan hanya ada di dalam agen judi online tepercaya. sebelum anda memilih pastikan anda mengerti dengan permainan judi yang anda lakukan. Karena hal itu akan mempengaruhi anda untuk mendapatkan penghasilan dalam bermain judi. Untuk menuju permainan judi yang baik kami menyediakan tempat yang akan menguntungkan bagi anda yaitu agen 338a tepercaya. Agen tepercaya yang satu ini selalu bisa memudahkan anda mendapatkan keuntungan besar dalam permainan casino poker online .

 

Pasti anda sudah mengenal tentang permainan casino online yang terbagi dalam berbagai jenis seperti poker, baccarat, sic bo, roulette, blackjack dan masih banyak lainnya. Perlu anda ketahui bahwa dalam setiap permainan casino jika anda lakukan di dalam agen 338a tepercaya selalu menghasilkan keuntungan besar. Untuk itu segera bergabung di dalam agen tersebut dengan cara yang praktis dan mudah. dengan itu pasti anda akan di bantu juga mendapatkan akun yang bisa anda gunakan untuk memainkan berbagai jenis casino. Semoga dengan adanya permainan casino di dalam agen 338a tepercaya anda anda akan mendapatkan keuntungan besar, sehingga anda akan mewujudkan menjadi kaya dengan mudah. selamat bermain dan semoga sukses.

 

Tips Meraup Rupiah Melalui Agen SBOBET Terpercaya

 

Judi Bola Casino yang akan membahas sebuah berita tentang tips meraup rupiah melalui agen SBOBET terpercaya. Sudah barang tentu anda akan merasakan betapa sangat menyenangkan ketika kita bermain sepak bola. Dari mulai kalangan remaja, dewasa hingga orang tua pun juga menyenangi olahraga yang mendunia ini. Hal itu karena permainan sepak bola selalu mengandung keuntungan besar. Jika anda menjadi penggemar sepak bola tentu sangat mudah sekali untuk mendapatkan keuntungan yang ada di dalam permainan sepak bola. karena anda bisa dengan mudah menganalisa pertandingan sepak bola untuk mendapatkan prediksi yang baik.

 

Prediksi baik …

Britain Bets on Internet Online Gambling

 

 

By legalizing online gaming, it hopes to bring betting companies in from offshore — and bring tax revenues home

 

It doesn’t have any ritzy Vegas-style casinos — at least not yet. But Britain has gone mad for betting. Newsstands are crammed with glossy gambling magazines and a national daily newspaper devoted entirely to games of chance launched last month. Some cable and satellite channels air nothing but poker and casino games. This year Britain even opened the world’s first casino college, where croupier trainees learn the tricks of the trade. Now, the government hopes to make Britain the global hub of online gambling.

 

Britain has already laid out the welcome mat for online betting firms which allow customers to wager electronically on everything from horses and soccer matches to the winners of reality TV shows and the Oscars. Such Web sites are operated legally by traditional street-corner bookies like Ladbrokes and William Hill, as well as by Web upstarts such as Sportingbet, UKbetting, and Betfair. They pay 15% of their gross profits in tax. So far, that’s been a pretty good bet for the government: Tax proceeds have topped $2.5 billion for the Treasury since 2004.

 

Now Britain is set to increase the stakes. Parliament has enacted sweeping new legislation that will open up the online market, starting next year, to traditional casino games such as poker, blackjack, and roulette. Britons already play such games by the millions, but the companies offering them are based in offshore tax havens such as Gibraltar, the Channel Islands, and Costa Rica. The government hopes that by becoming the first country in the developed world to legalize online gambling, it can lure offshore outfits to locate on British soil and pump even more revenues into public coffers.

 

BETTING LEADER. It’s a huge opportunity. Bookmaking has been legal in Britain for nearly 50 years, and the British are notorious for their love of betting. But the Internet has drawn in millions of new punters who never would have set foot in the betting shops found in every British town. …

Five Quick Ways to Better Your Hold’em Casino en ligne Game

 

 

If poker matters to you – if you really want to become a winning player, and not just wish you were – you owe it to yourself to take the steps that matter.

 

The hours before dawn are bad times for the sleepless. I had played poker too long, so I drove home, turned on the television, and started channel surfing, but all I could find were infomercials and bad prints of old movies – the kind in which the sound is nearly unintelligible and the once-shimmering black-and-white tones have long since faded to mottled gray. The infomercials weren’t much either, but at least they were watchable, and when you can’t sleep, that’s good enough.

 

Those infomercials all had one thing in common: They promised instant results. Wanna lose 15 unwanted pounds, build abs of steel, get rid of that ugly cellulite? Never mind what the problem might be, each product promised results instantly. If it’s good enough for late-night television, I figure it’s good enough for me. If you want to improve your Hold’em game in a New York minute, here are five ways that will jump-start your game and improve your play.

 

1 Read the newsgroup: If you don’t have a computer, now is the time to go out and buy one. When you get that box home, connect to the Internet and read the discussions and poker news on the Internet’s rec.gambling.poker (RGP) newsgroup. While you’ll find lots of social chatter and collateral postings, the Internet is the source of some incredibly creative ideas about poker.

 

These ideas, for the most part, are not circulated outside the newsgroup. It’s not out of secrecy, mind you, it’s just that RGP attracts very bright, creative, and insightful folks who enjoy talking poker. As a result, it’s fertile ground for new ideas and concepts. Ideas are posted, and comments are swiftly fed back to the author. It’s information at warp speed: That’s what the Internet is all about. You can follow the growth and development of ideas as they are molded and shaped by …

How Big Can the World Series of Togel Singapore Poker Become?

 

 

By the time the main event was set to open, so many Togel Singapore players ponied up $10,000 for this year’s main event that the first day was run in heats, with half the field playing on Sunday, May 23 and the other half on Monday. They combined the reduced fields on Tuesday. At the tournament’s start, no one was even sure how many players entered the event. Estimates ranged between 2,550 and 2,600, and the actual number turned out to be 2,576 — more than triple last year. If you graphed the growth of the World Series of Poker over the past 34 years, you’d see an acceleration curve that looks like a turbine engine ramping up to speed, growing slowly at first, then swinging from its steady horizontal rise to an almost vertical line resembling the vapor trail of a rocket launched into outer space — up, up, and away. Zoom. Swoosh. All of those comic book adjectives come together to form a perfect descriptive fit.

 

In 1997, the 300-entrant barrier was crossed for the first time, and it Togel Singapore seemed a lot. Everyone was shocked when more than 800 entered last year, but 2,576 players is off the charts. And it could have been more. The limiting factor was not the number of players, but available space to seat them all. Had they scheduled the first day at the Las Vegas Convention Center, we might have seen the total number of players climb to 3,000 or more.

 

As the number of players grew, the folks at the Horseshoe did what they could to constrain the field. Usually, there’s a feeding frenzy of satellite tournaments right up to the start of the main event, with each player paying $225 to enter a satellite that awards as many $10,000 buy-ins as it can. They also play one-table satellites, with players paying $1,025 for a chance to win a buy-in for the main event. Once Togel Singapore Harrah’s management saw that there would be no possible way to accommodate …

William Hill Poker Starts With £100,000 Extravaganza with Free Sports Picks

William Hill poker is excited to announce their largest tournament ever, the £100,000 Guaranteed Tournament to be held January 22nd, 2005.

There are three ways to earn a seat into this first of a kind tournament:

Route 1: £20+£2 single-table sit-and-go tournaments running 24/7

Route 2: £10+£1 multi-table tournaments running at 19:00 and 23:00 GMT daily

Route 3: Direct buy-in for £200+£15

This exciting event is to be held at 20:00 GMT on Saturday, January 22nd with all entrants receiving 2500 in starting chips.

William Hill is also offering some enticing promotions to new and existing players. New players can earn £5 per hour up to a total of £25. Existing players can also earn up to £25 per month for playing poker.

In addition, William Hill Poker also has a prop program where players can earn up to £30 per hour for starting new games and playing for up to two hours.

Greg Raymer, the 2004 World Series of Poker champion called a pair of attackers’ bluff at the Bellagio hotel-casino in Las Vegas, NV. The foiled robbery occurred around 2 a.m. on December 20th as Raymer was returning to his hotel room after he finished playing in a cash game, according to Las Vegas police.

As Raymer approached his room that morning, two attackers appeared out of nowhere and attempted to force him into his room. Raymer resisted and began struggling with the men as one of the men pulled out a gun and stated: “We just want the money.”

Raymer did not stop there however, he yelled for security after he was able to knock one of the attackers to the ground with Free Sports Picks. Moments later the attackers realizing this would be no easy feat fled the hallway.

Police later made an arrest in the case, but no identity was released. A security guard at the casino said he recognized the person as a poker player from a previous incident at the casino.

On an unspecified message board Raymer was quoted as saying: “I don’t write this to brag, I just want any robbery-minded …

Casino Extra Poker Cheats: The Mechanics Grip

 

 

Many players have learned how to successfully cheat at the game of poker. One such cheating method is mastering the art of stacking the deck. To master this skill one has to be good with sleight of hand. This is done by a special way of holding the deck of cards that allows the deck to be manipulated, or stacked, one of these special ways is called the Mechanic’s Grip.

 

To help you better understand this cheat, pick up a deck of cards as if you were getting ready to deal. You will probably be holding the deck in the palm of your hand, with your thumb on top of the cards, and your other four fingers on the side of the deck. When dealing cards, you use your thumb to push one card onto the tips of your other four fingers. The thumb is then used to hold this card in place, until your thumb and pointer finger of the opposite hand grabs it and deals the card out. Many poker players deal this way, even though they probably have not noticed it or put much thought into it.

 

To form the Casino Extra Mechanic’s Grip, move your pointer finger and middle fingers to the short side of the deck, farthest away from yourself. With this grip, more of the deck is covered by your hand, making it harder for the other players to see what you are doing. This grip is the basis for many cheats, such as peeking (the dealer will either push one corner, or side of the top card, away from the rest of the deck so that he can see the top card), bottom dealing (dealing the from the bottom of the deck instead of the top), and second dealing (dealing the second card in the deck instead of the top card, usually when the dealer wants the top card for his own hand). By using the peek, the dealer will be able to keep track of what cards each player gets, he can also setup his own hand by …